Kipchoge, 35, beat four other contestants to retain the award during the World Athletics gala in Monaco on Saturday night.
Kipchoge, who was not at the gala but accepted the accolade in a telecast interview, won the London Marathon in April in a course record of 2:02:37, before making history as the first man to run a marathon under two honours when he completed the Ïneos 1:59 Challenge in Vienna, Austria in 1:59:40.2 on October 12 this year.
Kipchoge beat World Cross Country and World 10,000m champion Joshua Cheptegei from Uganda, World 200m champion Noah Lyles (USA), World 400m hurdles champion Karsten Warholm (Norway) and World pole vault champion Sam Kendricks (USA).
“It was really a special moment for me becoming the first human being to run under two hours. I am happy to inspire a whole generation,” said Kipchoge.
World 800m record holder David Rudisha was the first Kenyan to win the accolade in 2010.